Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Buying FAQs

How can I search for specific products?

If I can’t find my target, what can I do?

Can I get a free sample of a product?

Is there any limitation in ordering trial size antibodies?

Can I get a discount?

Do I need to pay for shipping?

What is the timeline for shipping?

Review and Reward FAQs

What is ABcoins? How to use ABcoins?

If I ordered more than 5 trial size antibodies in the first order, will I get ABcoins for the rest?

How to submit a qualified review for getting ABcoins?

Can I perform a test in the conditions that are not recommended by manufacturer’s protocol (e.g. application, reactivity)?

What if I need more than 60 days to finish the test and submit the review online?

Technical FAQs

How should I choose a suitable secondary antibody?

How should I choose an isotype control?

How should I choose a positive control?

What antigen retrieval method should I use with this antibody?

What concentration of primary antibody should I use?

How should I store my antibody?

How should I aliquot my antibody?

Why was this antibody discontinued? Can I get more of this antibody?

Are there any publications using this antibody?

Is the antibody tested in another species/application?

How can I determine whether an antibody may be detected in an untested species?

Will this antibody cross react with another isoform of this protein, or protein from the same ‘family’?

Are you able to provide the immunogen sequence for this antibody?

Why the actual Western blot band size is different from the predicted?

What is a clone number?

If the non-specific band is more clearly defined than the specific band, how can the specific band be identified?

Why independent validation is important?

 

Buying FAQs

How can I search for specific products?
You can search an antibody by entering the antigen name, and filter the search result with filtering options. Also, you can contact our customer service via email, Livechat or telephone, we will help you with product searching.

If I can’t find my target, what can I do?
Talk with us by Livechat or -. We are glad to help you search in our database, contact more suppliers, and find available resource for you. 

Can I get a free sample of a product?
We are offering refundable trial samples, we refund credits to customers who submit the testing reviews, regardless the testing result. ($50 ABcoins per review). We offer 100% refund for up to 5 trial samples in your first order!

Is there any limitation in ordering trial size antibodies?
No. Order as many as you want in any combination.

Can I get a discount?
Yes, we provide discount for our loyal customers, also we have time-limited sale offers for all customers. We also provide extra discount for a bulk order placement. You can check with our customer services team for discount opportunities.

Do I need to pay for shipping?
Yes. The shipping & handling fees are location-based and calculated independently, no matter for regular products or trial size antibodies.
For orders in US, shipping & handling fee is $50 ($40 shipping + $10 handling).
For international orders, shipping & handling fee is $80 ($70 shipping + $10 handling).
Shipping fee can be waived if you provide your own FedEx account number. The final price will be adjusted automatically when you check out. Shipment outside US may cause extra custom clearance and duty fee.

What is the timeline for shipping?
Since we have diverse requests on different manufactures, we will ship your order in 5-10 businesses days after processing. If you need fast delivery in one week, please online chat or email us for details.

Review and Reward FAQs

What is ABcoins? How to use ABcoins?
Each review you submit gets you $50 ABcoins. ABcoins can be used in your future order when purchasing full size antibodies and will be automatically applied when you check out.

If I ordered more than 5 trial size antibodies in the first order, will I get ABcoins for the rest?
Yes. If you order more than five trial antibodies in one order, you will receive $50 ABcoins for each review of the rest trials.

How to submit a qualified review for getting ABcoins?
Pretty simple! We only have two requirements for review submission. First, please submit online in 60 days after package delivery. Extension is available only if we receive your advanced notification before package delivery. Second, please follow the instruction to fill the online form. We will follow-up to ask more details if your review is too simple for us to understand the test.

Can I perform a test in the conditions that are not recommended by manufacturer’s protocol (e.g. application, reactivity)?
We strongly recommend you follow the product info sheet and the manufacturer’s protocol (e.g. applications, reactivity and dilution ration, etc.). If you perform a test in not-recommended conditions, we are not able to guarantee the performance. But it is still acceptable for ABcoins rewards program.

What if I need more than 60 days to finish the test and submit the review online?
Don’t worry and let us know in advanced. Please notify us via online chat, email, or call before your package delivered. We will send you a confirmation email including extended date and wait for your reviews.

Technical FAQs

How should I choose a suitable secondary antibody?
There are multiple aspects could determine the type of secondary antibody needed: the application, primary antibody and experimental design. The following factors could help you to choose a suitable secondary antibody for your application and research:

  • Host and target species
  • Targeted reactivity
  • Purification
  • Cross-adsorption
  • Multiplexing
  • Antibody class and subclass
  • Whole antibodies vs. fragments
  • Conjugates
  • Biotin-binding proteins.

How should I choose an isotype control?
To confirm whether the primary antibody binding is specific Fc receptor binding, other protein interaction or not, isotype control have commonly been used. The host species, isotype and conjugation of isotype control antibody should be same as the primary antibodies. Most isotype controls are monoclonal, so they would be suitable for comparing result with polyclonal antibodies.

How should I choose a positive control?

  • Be sure you apply the positive control with tested species.
  • You can do a quick literature search on PubMed to find tissues and cells express the protein of interest.
  • Check other’s work, find out which tissues, cells or lysates have successfully performed in their experiment as a suitable positive control.
  • Check database on websites: http://web.expasy.org/docs/swiss-prot_guideline.html and http://omnigene.sourceforge.net/index.shtml A list of tissues that a protein is expressed in is generally listed in these databases, which could help you to consider a suitable positive controls.
  • If you want to check the relative levels of expression in various tissues, you can visit: http://www.genecards.org/ (entry for the protein)

What antigen retrieval method should I use with this antibody?
Although fixation is essential for the preservation of tissue morphology, this process can also have a negative impact on IHC/ICC detection. Most antigen retrieval method should be optimized by the end user.

What concentration of primary antibody should I use?
Literature standard of concentrations is shown in following table, it could be various based on individual situation of the product (purity, activity. etc.).

Tissue culture supernatant Ascites Whole antiserum Purified antibody
WB/dot blot 1/100 1/1000 1/500 1 ug/ml
IHC/ICC neat-1/10 1/100 1/50-1/100 5 ug/ml
EIA/ELISA 1/1000 1/10000 1/500 0.1 ug/ml
FACS/Flow cytometry 1/100 1/1000 1/500 1 ug/ml
IP 1/100 1/50-1/100 1-10 ug/ml
Concentration estimate 1-3 mg/ml 5-10 mg/ml 1-10 mg/ml

How should I store my antibody?
For long-term storage, -20oC is recommended. For short-term storage, most antibodies can be stored at 4oC for 1-2 week and remain the activity. Also, we suggest that antibody product should be aliquoted to avoid freeze/thaw damage.

For special antibodies:

  • Enzyme-linked antibodies should be stored at 4oC to avoid freezing and decreasing the activity
  • Coupling antibodies should avoid light exposure, especially fluorescent antibodies
  • Igg3 isotype control antibodies need to be stored at 4oC.

How should I aliquot my antibody?
Aliquoted size should not be smaller than 10 ul, otherwise the stock concentration could be significantly influenced by evaporation and adsorption of the antibody onto the surface of the storage vial.

Why was this antibody discontinued? Can I get more of this antibody?
Poor sales, unavailability from the originator or production difficulties can lead to the product discontinued. We understand it might cause inconvenience if this is the problem you are facing to. You can always contact our customer services to check availability. We also contact you once the product is back to stock. You can also check the alternative antibodies.

Are there any publications using this antibody?
We will update our datasheets as soon as we receive new information. Also, you can check with PubMed.

Is the antibody tested in another species/application?
The datasheet should show all tested species and applications. We will also update the datasheet, once we receive new information. You can also go ahead to purchase a product for untested application of species. You can submit a review on our website, regardless the testing result. We will reward ABcoins for each submitted review. ABcoins can be used for future product order.

How can I determine whether an antibody may be detected in an untested species?
We can guarantee if an antibody will work in an untested species, unless the sequence alignment is high (higher than 85%, we can still guarantee how well the antibody will perform). Many factors could influence the binding activity of antibody in another species. You can also go ahead to purchase a product for untested application of species. You can submit a review on our website, regardless the testing result. We will reward ABcoins for each submitted review. ABcoins can be used for future product order.

Will this antibody cross react with another isoform of this protein, or protein from the same ‘family’?
Please check the ‘specificity’ section on the datasheet. If no information available, you can check the sequence alignment of immunogen with the isoforms or other proteins you are interested in. Example, you can calculate the percentage alignment on BLAST.

Are you able to provide the immunogen sequence for this antibody?
Some immunogen sequence of antibodies may not available on the datasheet. Please contact us if you need detail information.

Why the actual Western blot band size is different from the predicted?
Migration could be affected by may factor, protein size is only the major one factor. Common factors include:

  • Post- translational modification
  • Post-translation cleavage
  • Splice variants
  • Relative charge
  • Multimers

What is a clone number?
A clone number is given to an antibody produced by a single clone of hybridoma cells. Each hybridoma cell clone produces one single pure homogeneous type of antibody. The term “monoclonal” pertains to a single clone of cells, a single cell and the progeny of that cell. Monoclonal antibodies can be made in large amounts in the laboratory.

Each clone number represents a specific cell line cloned from ascites that was used to manufacture the antibody. Since antibodies are produced by more than one host, each cloned cell line receives a unique clone number. The clone number is not synonymous with the lot number which is in relation with the creation of the vial. There is little to no difference among the quality of the clones.

Clone also refers to an individual developed from a single somatic (non-germ) cell from a parent, representing an exact replica of that parent. A clone is a group of cells derived from a single ancestral cell.

If the non-specific band is more clearly defined than the specific band, how can the specific band be identified?
Specific band confirmation:

Refer to the Predicted MW: most antibody’s detected results are within a 10-15% margin of the Predicted MW. Please refer to the data on the Uniprot website, http://www.uniprot.org/, for the Predicted MW. The possible reasons that the detected MW has differed from the predicted MW:

1.The target protein has modification sites, i.e. a glycosylation.
2.The target protein has combined with another molecule, i.e. another protein.
3.The target protein has been cleaved.
4.There are a few special proteins that are known to show poorly on Western blots such as ubiquitin.
5.Di-polymer or polymer.

Why independent validation is important?
We encourage customer to perform independent validation, based on Nature reported data. $28.2 billion (50%) was wasted by reproducibility crisis. 70% scientists cannot reproduce another scientist’s work. So, it is very important for researcher to perform independent validation before they perform large scale experiment.